The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment offered randomly selected families housing vouchers to move from high-poverty housing projects to lower-poverty neighborhoods. We analyzed MTO's impacts on children's long-term outcomes using tax data. We found that moving to a lower-poverty neighborhood when young (before age 13) increased college attendance and earnings and reduced single parenthood rates. Moving as an adolescent had slightly negative impacts, perhaps because of disruption effects. The decline in the gains from moving when children were older suggests that the duration of exposure to better environments during childhood is an important determinant of children's long-term outcomes. (author abstract)
The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: New evidence from the Moving to Opportunity experiment
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