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Urban

America's child care deserts in 2018

Individual Author: 
Malik, Rasheed
Hamm, Katie
Schochet, Leila
Novoa, Cristina
Workman, Simon
Jessen-Howard, Steven

For this report, the Center for American Progress collected and analyzed data on the location and capacity of licensed or registered child care providers in every state and Washington, D.C. These data were synthesized with estimates of the population, family income, and labor force participation rates in every one of the country’s 73,057 census tracts. This original and comprehensive analysis of child care supply at the census tract level finds that 51 percent of Americans live in child care deserts.

How do sprawl and inequality affect well-being in American cities?

Individual Author: 
Lee, Wen Hao
Ambrey, Christopher
Pojani, Dorina

This study investigates whether income inequality is related to sprawl and wellbeing in American cities. The results do not provide evidence to support the role of income inequality as a mediator of the link between sprawl and well-being. Instead, the results tell a more nuanced story. Specifically, they indicate that consistent with a priori expectations, lower levels of sprawl are, on average, associated with lower levels of income inequality. Additionally, lower levels of sprawl correspond to higher levels of financial well-being.

Integrating motivational interviewing and traditional practices to address alcohol and drug use among urban American Indian/Alaska Native youth

Individual Author: 
Dickerson, Daniel L.
Brown, Ryan A.
Johnson, Carrie L.
Schweigman, Kurt
D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited.

Integration of the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model across primary care settings

Individual Author: 
Eismann, Emily A.
Theuerling, Jack
Maguire, Sabine
Hente, Elizabeth A.
Shapiro, Robert A.

This project sought to assess the generalizability, barriers, and facilitators of implementing the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model for addressing psychosocial risk factors for maltreatment across multiple primary care settings, including a pediatric practice, federally qualified health center, and family medicine practice. The SEEK model includes screening caregivers for psychosocial risk factors at well-child visits age 0 to 5 years, brief intervention incorporating principles of motivational interviewing to engage caregivers, and referral to treatment.

Neighborhoods, social support, and African American adolescents' mental health outcomes: A multilevel path analysis

Individual Author: 
Hurd, Noelle M.
Stoddard, Sarah A.
Zimmerman, Marc A.

This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; M age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on adolescents' mental health outcomes was conducted.

Barriers to healthcare access in a non-elderly urban poor American population

Individual Author: 
Ahmed, Syed M.
Lemkau, Jeanne P.
Nealeigh, Nichol
Mann, Barbara

An understanding of perceived barriers to health-care is critical to improving healthcare access for all Americans. To determine perceived barriers to health-care in an urban poor population in Dayton, Ohio, a face-to-face door-to-door survey of individuals identified through targeted, stratified, area probability sampling was done. A sample of 413 non-elderly poor adults, including 19% without telephones, reported personal relevance of various barriers to healthcare access.

Disseminating a parenting intervention in the community: Experiences from a multi-site-evaluation

Individual Author: 
Maupin, Angela N.
Samuel, Emily
Nappi, Susan M.
Heath, Jennifer M.
Smith, Megan V.

Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) is a widely used parenting intervention that is gaining popularity globally as it is currently being delivered across several continents. Despite the global uptake of COS-P, there is limited research on its effectiveness with considerable variability in its delivery. Here we present a multi-site evaluation of the group delivery of COS-P to under-resourced mothers (n = 131 enrolled) in an urban community as facilitated by community-based providers (n = 12) from community sites (n = 6) that provide maternal and child services.

Understanding barriers to initial treatment engagement among underserved families seeking mental health services

Individual Author: 
Ofonedu, Mirian E.
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.
Budhathoki, Chakra
Gross, Deborah A.

This mixed method study examined factors associated with parents not attending their child’s mental health treatment after initially seeking help for their 2–5 year old child. It was part of a larger study comparing two evidence-based treatments among low-income racial/ethnic minority families seeking child mental health services. Of 123 parents who initiated mental health treatment (71 % African American or multi-racial; 97.6 % low-income), 36 (29.3 %) never attended their child’s first treatment session.

Early math trajectories: Low-income children’s mathematics knowledge from ages 4 to 11

Individual Author: 
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
Hofer, Kerry G.
Fyfe, Emily R.
Farran, Dale C.

Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement.

Child care choices and children’s cognitive achievement: The case of single mothers

Individual Author: 
Bernal, Raquel
Keane, Michael P.

We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as instruments to estimate child cognitive ability production functions.