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U.S. Census Bureau

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Precision in measurement: Using state-level Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families administrative records and the Transfer Income Model (TRIM3) to evaluate poverty measurement

Individual Author: 
Shantz, Kathryn
Fox, Liana E.

Policy leaders look to quality data and statistics to help inform and guide programmatic decisions. As a result, assessing the quality and validity of major household surveys in capturing accurate program participation is essential. One method for evaluating survey quality is to compare self-reported program participation in surveys to administrative records from the program itself. In this paper, we are interested in understanding two issues.

Preschoolers enrolled and mothers at work? The effects of universal pre-kindergarten

Individual Author: 
Fitzpatrick, Maria Donovan

Three states (Georgia, Oklahoma and Florida) recently introduced Universal Pre-Kindergarten (Universal Pre-K) programs offering free preschool to all age-eligible children, and policy makers in many other states are promoting similar policies. How do such policies affect the participation of children in preschool programs (or do they merely substitute for preschool offered by the market)? Does the implicit child care subsidy afforded by Universal Pre-K change maternal labor supply?

Alternative poverty measures in the Survey of Income and Program Participation: 1996

Individual Author: 
Short, Kathleen

In 1995 the National Academy of Sciences released a report recommending revisions to the official measure of poverty. The recommendations included using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for the basis of official income and poverty statistics. Since then, the Census Bureau has conducted research, and published in a series of reports, a set of alternative measures that are comparable in concept to those used in the Current Population Survey (CPS).

Social and economic characteristics of currently unmarried women with a recent birth: 2011

Individual Author: 
Shattuck, Rachel M.
Kreider, Rose M.

Births to women living in the United States are tracked throughout the year by the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), which is overseen by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). While the NVSS provides administrative counts of births in the United States and basic characteristics of the mothers such as age, race, and marital status, other characteristics of the mother may provide a fuller profile of differences among groups of mothers.

Changing the face of poor lone mothers: Understanding how alternative poverty definitions change the composition of lone mother families living in poverty

Individual Author: 
Heggeness, Misty L.
Mykyta, Laryssa

Using the 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), this paper analyzes how changes in poverty measurement affect the poverty rate of lone mother families. It compares new Supplemental Poverty Measures to official poverty rates within the United States. Lone mother families, defined as those families where the father is absent and children are present, include both families where the mother is the householder, as well as those subfamilies residing in someone else’s household (usually the parent(s) or other relative(s)).

Work related expenditures in a new measure of poverty

Individual Author: 
Short, Kathleen
Shea, Martina
Eller, T. J.

This paper examines various methods of accounting for work related expenses (including child care expenses) in a new measure of poverty. We include a discussion of the treatment of these expenses in defining poverty. We begin with the imputation method as proposed by the Committee on National Statistics’ panel on poverty. In the report released in May of 1995, they recommend a measure of family resources that contains income that is available to buy goods and services minus expenses that cannot be used to buy goods and services.

"Is everything relative?" The role of equivalence scales in poverty measurement

Individual Author: 
Betson, David M.

Counting the poor is conceptually a rather simple procedure. First, a determination of the household's needs is made. The household's resources are then counted to see if they are sufficient to meet these needs. If they do not, then the household is counted as being poor. While the household's resources can be objectively observed and enumerated, the same cannot be said of their needs. At what point in the continuum of household consumption does a household move from "not having enough" to "having enough"?

Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011

Individual Author: 
Laughlin, Lynda

Parents in the labor force face numerous decisions when balancing their work and home life, including choosing the type of care to provide for their children while they work. Deciding which child care arrangement to use has become an increasingly important family issue as maternal employment has become the norm, rather than the exception. Child care arrangements and their costs are significant issues for parents, relatives, care providers, policy makers, and anyone concerned about children.

The impact of family structure, mobility, and employment on children's well-being

Individual Author: 
Laughlin, Lynda

This poster presentation, presented at the 2014 National Council on Family Relations Annual Meeting, describes a study which uses dynamic measures of family transitions to shed light on how transitions and the cumulative number of disruptions can impact selected measures of children's well-being. (adapted author abstract)