Skip to main content
Back to Top



Two direct rights of action in child support enforcement

Individual Author: 
Ryznar, Margaret

This Article argues that, if the goal of a child support enforcement system is to increase the efficiency of enforcement, parents should have access to the courts to enforce child support orders against each other. A comparative analysis of the U.S. and U.K. approaches illustrates the characteristics of a system that recognizes and validates the personal consequences to parents seeking child support. Furthermore, to the extent possible under federal law, there should be some judicial oversight of the state agencies responsible for overseeing child support.

Children with incarcerated mothers: Developmental outcomes, special challenges and recommendations

Individual Author: 
Dallaire, Danielle H.

Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed from a developmental perspective with a focus on children's connectedness to family and school.

Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families

Individual Author: 
Dallaire, Danielle H.

Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers’ incarceration. Multiple methods were used to collect data from children, mothers, and children's nonmaternal caregivers. Results indicated that most children experienced multiple risks across contextual levels.

Promoting educational resiliency in youth with incarcerated parents: The impact of parental incarceration, school characteristics, and connectedness on school outcomes

Individual Author: 
Nichols, Emily B.
Loper, Ann B.
Meyer, J. Patrick

The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status).

Maternal incarceration and the transformation of urban family life

Individual Author: 
Turney, Kristin
Wildeman, Christopher

Incarceration intensely alters the family lives of incarcerated men and the women and children connected to them. Yet women increasingly spend time behind bars and, accordingly, they absorb direct consequences of incarceration in addition to the more commonly considered spillover consequences of men’s incarceration on families. In this article, we draw on the stress process perspective to examine the consequences of maternal incarceration for three broad aspects of family life: romantic relationships, parenting, and economic wellbeing.

Child support conviction and recidivism: A statistical interaction pattern by race

Individual Author: 
Spjeldnes, Solveig
Yamatani, Hide
Davis, Maggie M.

An estimated 50,000 parents are behind bars on average daily for child support nonpayment, but information about these fathers and their recidivism rates are lacking. Using a jail sample (N = 16,382), multinomial logistics regression method was utilized; subgroup analysis was used to investigate differential beta weights of predictor variables. Informed by Critical Race Theory, findings showed that fathers incarcerated for arrears had significantly higher rates of recidivism than other jailed men, but had an interaction effect with race.

Racial and gender justice in the child welfare and child support systems

Individual Author: 
Brinig, Margaret

While divorcing couples in the United States have been studied for many years, separating unmarried couples and their children have proven more difficult to analyze. Recently there have been successful longitudinal ethnographic and survey-based studies. This piece uses documents from a single Indiana county’s unified family court (called the Probate Court) to trace the effects of race and gender on unmarried families, beginning with a sample of 386 children for whom paternity petitions were brought in four months of 2008.

Earnings and child support participation among reentering fathers

Individual Author: 
Mellgren, Linda
McKay, Tasseli
Landwehr, Justin
Bir, Anupa
Helburn, Amy
Lindquist, Christine
Krieger, Kate

A father’s incarceration can represent a serious threat to economic stability for his children and family, yet little is known about earnings and child support payments among justice-involved men over the course of incarceration and release. This brief presents findings on pre- and post-incarceration wages and child support participation in the five impact sites of the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting and Partnering (MFS-IP). This analysis matches MFS-IP survey data with state administrative data on wages and child support participation to examine this gap.

Child welfare reentry and multi-system involvement: Examining cumulative risk and protective factors

Individual Author: 
Shaw, Terry V.
Goering, Emily
Shipe, Stacey
Betsinger, Sara
Farrell, Jill

This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes how demographics, behavior, family characteristics, child welfare history, juvenile services history, and other policy factors impact reentry.