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Prenatal risk factors and perinatal and postnatal outcomes associated wtih maternal opioid exposure in an urban, low-income multiethnic US population

Individual Author: 
Azuine, Romuladus E.
Ji, Yuelong
Chang, Hsing-Yuan
Kim, Yoona
Ji, Hongkai
DiBari, Jessica
Hong, Xiumei
Wang, Guoying
Singh, Gopal K.
Pearson, Colleen
Zuckerman, Barry
Surkan, Pamela J.
Wang, Xiaobin
Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking.
 
Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children.

Maternal monitoring knowledge change and adolescent externalizing behaviors in low-income African American and Latino families

Individual Author: 
Chang, Tzu-Fen
Baolian Qin, Desiree

Drawing on a sample of 318 African American and 354 Latino urban, low-income families, we identify maternal monitoring knowledge trajectories and examine which trajectory predicts fewer late-adolescent externalizing problems and which family and neighborhood factors predict trajectories with positive implications for lateadolescent externalizing behaviors. The majority of adolescents in both groups perceived long-term high levels of maternal monitoring knowledge throughout adolescence—stably high for the African American sample and high for the Latino sample.

“We get a chance to show impact": Program staff reflect on participating in a rigorous, multi-site evaluation

Individual Author: 
Hamadyk, Jill
Gardiner, Karen

This brief summarizes the experiences of leaders and staff from eight career pathways programs that participated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) Evaluation. Based on firsthand accounts, the brief describes how staff perceived the benefits of participating in the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation, the challenges they experienced—in particular recruiting study participants and implementing its random assignment procedures—and how they overcame challenges. The brief then describes lessons staff learned from participating in PACE.

Neighborhood-level interventions to improve childhood opportunity and lift children out of poverty

Individual Author: 
Sandel, Megan
Faugno, Elena
Mingo, Angela
Cannon, Jessie
Byrd, Kymberly
Acevedo Garcia, Dolores
Collier, Sheena
McClure, Elizabeth
Boynton Jarrett, Renee

Population health is associated with the socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods. There is considerable scientific and policy interest in community-level interventions to alleviate child poverty. Intergenerational poverty is associated with inequitable access to opportunities. Improving opportunity structures within neighborhoods may contribute to improved child health and development.

Evaluating equity in Boston Public Schools’ school choice and assignment system: How do assumptions undermine aspirations of equity?

Individual Author: 
O'Brien, Daniel T.
Hill, Nancy
Contreras, Mariah
Sidoni, Guido

Many American cities suffer from de facto residential segregation along lines of race and class, and their school districts have long struggled to find ways to mitigate this segregation in their schools. A common solution is the creation of school choice and assignment policies that enable students to submit a list of schools from across the city that then creates assignments based on a lottery.

Analysis plan for the PACE intermediate (three-year) follow-up study

Individual Author: 
Judkins, David
Fein, David
Buron, Larry

The Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) evaluation is a study of nine promising programs that use a “career pathways” framework for increasing education, employment, and self-sufficiency among low-income individuals and families. Funded by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PACE will include three points of participant follow-up—at 18 months, three years, and six years after random assignment.

Modeling the impacts of child care quality on children's preschool cognitive development

Individual Author: 
Duncan, Greg J.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care compared 3 statistical methods that adjust for family selection bias to test whether child care type and quality relate to cognitive and academic skills. The methods included: multiple regression models of 54-month outcomes, change models of differences in 24- and 54-month outcomes, and residualized change models of 54-month outcomes adjusting for the 24-month outcome. The study was unable to establish empirically which model best adjusted for selection and omitted-variable bias.

Predicting repeated and persistent family homelessness: Do families’ characteristics and experiences matter?

Individual Author: 
Glendening, Zachary
Shinn, Marybeth

Research indicates that most families using emergency shelters stay briefly—one to four or five months—and rarely return (Culhane et al. 2007). However, some families remain homeless for long periods of time or experience repeated episodes of homelessness. These families may have characteristics and service needs that differ from those of families who leave shelter quickly and permanently. Communities and homelessness practitioners might benefit from identifying those families’ characteristics and experiences to improve targeting of services.

IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: Are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

Individual Author: 
Chen, Aimin
Dietrich, Kim N.
Ware, James H.
Radcliffe, Jerilynn
Rogan, Walter J.

Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, which IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ.

Mothers' transitions from welfare to work and the well-being of preschoolers and adolescents

Individual Author: 
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Moffitt, Robert A.
Lohman, Brenda J.
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Levine Coley, Rebekah
Pittman, Laura D.
Roff, Jennifer
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

Results from a longitudinal study of 2,402 low-income families during the recent unprecedented era of welfare reform suggest that mothers' transitions off welfare and into employment are not associated with negative outcomes for preschoolers (ages 2 to 4 years) or young adolescents (ages 10 to 14 years). Indeed, no significant associations with mothers' welfare and employment transitions were found for preschoolers, and the dominant pattern was also of few statistically significant associations for adolescents.