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Public health surveillance of prenatal opioid exposure in mothers and infants

Individual Author: 
Honein, Margaret A.
Boyle, Coleen
Redfield, Robert R.

The US opioid crisis is the public health emergency of our time and requires urgent public health action to monitor and protect the most vulnerable Americans. We have witnessed a startling death toll in 2017 with 70 237 drug overdose deaths in the United States, of which two-thirds involved opioids. The devastating consequences of this epidemic for mothers and infants have received less attention.

The labor force and output consequences of the opioid crisis

Individual Author: 
Gitis, Ben
Soto, Isabel

This study examines the labor market and economic consequences of the opioid crisis. While previous studies have estimated economic costs of the opioid epidemic, none has taken into account the most significant way opioid dependency is likely impacting the U.S. economy: its impact on labor force participation. This study measures the direct cost on the economy of opioids leading workers out of the labor force. Specifically, it estimates the number of workers who are absent from the labor force due to opioids, the loss of hours at work, and the resulting decline in real output. It finds: 

Families affected by parental substance use

Individual Author: 
Smith, Vincent C.
Wilson, Celeste R.
Committee on Substance Use and Prevention

Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child’s risk in the context of a parent’s substance use.

The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: A public health approach to an epidemic of addiction

Individual Author: 
Kolodny, Andrew
Courtwright, David T.
Hwang, Catherine S.
Kreiner, Peter
Eadie, John L.
Clark, Thomas W.
Alexander, G. Caleb

Public health authorities have described, with growing alarm, an unprecedented increase in morbidity and mortality associated with use of opioid pain relievers (OPRs). Efforts to address the opioid crisis have focused mainly on reducing nonmedical OPR use. Too often overlooked, however, is the need for preventing and treating opioid addiction, which occurs in both medical and nonmedical OPR users. Overprescribing of OPRs has led to a sharp increase in the prevalence of opioid addiction, which in turn has been associated with a rise in overdose deaths and heroin use.

A 30-year study of 3 generations at high risk and low risk for depression

Individual Author: 
Weissman, Myrna M.
Berry, Obianuju O.
Warner, Virginia
Gameroff, Marc J.
Skipper, Jamie
Talati, Ardesheer
Pilowsky, Daniel J.
Wickramaratne, Priya

Importance  The increased risk of major depression in the offspring of depressed parents is well known. Whether the risk is transmitted beyond 2 generations is less well known. To our knowledge, no published study with direct interviews of family members and the generations in the age of risk for depression has evaluated beyond 2 generations.

The health of parents and their children: A two-generation inquiry

Individual Author: 
Murphey, David
Cook, Elizabeth
Beckwith, Samuel
Belford, Jonathan

Health is a fundamental component of wellbeing. Children’s health affects their ability to succeed in school and engage in other learning opportunities within the contexts of their family, neighborhood, and community. This brief examines the relationship between the health of children and that of their parents, and between the availability of emotional support for parenting and children’s health, based on a large national sample. We use parent self-reports of health, which prior research has determined are valid measures of health status for both parents and their children.

Mother’s education and children’s outcomes: How dual-generation programs offer increased opportunities for America’s families

Individual Author: 
Hernandez, Donald J.
Napierala, Jeffrey S.

Mother’s Education and Children’s Outcomes: How Dual-Generation Programs Offer Increased Opportunities for America’s Children is the second in a series of the Foundation for Child Development’s Disparities Among America’s Children reports.

Two-generation pediatric care: A modest proposal

Individual Author: 
Zuckerman, Barry

To reduce inequities in child health, we need to reduce the gap between what we know and what we do. We must challenge our practices and traditions, develop new solutions and have the strength and courage to change how we practice. Based on my experience that the best way to help children is to help their parents, and the best way to reach parents is through their children, I propose a new frame of a 2-generation approach that focuses not only on the child but also on the parents and their relationship to guide our innovation and target improvements.

The role of child support debt on the development of mental health problems among nonresident fathers

Individual Author: 
Um, Hyunjoon

Using the first five waves of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this research examines whether nonresident fathers who owe child support arrears are at risk for the development of depression and alcohol abuse problems. To attenuate a potential omitted variable bias, I controlled for fathers’ previous mental health status by including a lagged dependent variable as a covariate. As a robustness check, I used an instrumental variable approach to correct for endogeneity and measurement error associated with mothers’ report of fathers’ child support arrears.