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Public health surveillance of prenatal opioid exposure in mothers and infants

Individual Author: 
Honein, Margaret A.
Boyle, Coleen
Redfield, Robert R.

The US opioid crisis is the public health emergency of our time and requires urgent public health action to monitor and protect the most vulnerable Americans. We have witnessed a startling death toll in 2017 with 70 237 drug overdose deaths in the United States, of which two-thirds involved opioids. The devastating consequences of this epidemic for mothers and infants have received less attention.

The labor force and output consequences of the opioid crisis

Individual Author: 
Gitis, Ben
Soto, Isabel

This study examines the labor market and economic consequences of the opioid crisis. While previous studies have estimated economic costs of the opioid epidemic, none has taken into account the most significant way opioid dependency is likely impacting the U.S. economy: its impact on labor force participation. This study measures the direct cost on the economy of opioids leading workers out of the labor force. Specifically, it estimates the number of workers who are absent from the labor force due to opioids, the loss of hours at work, and the resulting decline in real output. It finds: 

Families affected by parental substance use

Individual Author: 
Smith, Vincent C.
Wilson, Celeste R.
Committee on Substance Use and Prevention

Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child’s risk in the context of a parent’s substance use.

Prenatal risk factors and perinatal and postnatal outcomes associated wtih maternal opioid exposure in an urban, low-income multiethnic US population

Individual Author: 
Azuine, Romuladus E.
Ji, Yuelong
Chang, Hsing-Yuan
Kim, Yoona
Ji, Hongkai
DiBari, Jessica
Hong, Xiumei
Wang, Guoying
Singh, Gopal K.
Pearson, Colleen
Zuckerman, Barry
Surkan, Pamela J.
Wang, Xiaobin
Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking.
 
Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children.

The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: A public health approach to an epidemic of addiction

Individual Author: 
Kolodny, Andrew
Courtwright, David T.
Hwang, Catherine S.
Kreiner, Peter
Eadie, John L.
Clark, Thomas W.
Alexander, G. Caleb

Public health authorities have described, with growing alarm, an unprecedented increase in morbidity and mortality associated with use of opioid pain relievers (OPRs). Efforts to address the opioid crisis have focused mainly on reducing nonmedical OPR use. Too often overlooked, however, is the need for preventing and treating opioid addiction, which occurs in both medical and nonmedical OPR users. Overprescribing of OPRs has led to a sharp increase in the prevalence of opioid addiction, which in turn has been associated with a rise in overdose deaths and heroin use.

What are the effects of a two-generation human capital program on low-income parents' education, employment and psychological well-being?

Individual Author: 
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Sommer, Teresa Eckrich
Sabol, Terri J.
Chor, Elise
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
King, Christopher
Morris, Amanada
  • The current brief explores the effects of a model two-generation human capital intervention CareerAdvance®, on parent outcomes.
  • CareerAdvance®, developed and run by the Community Action Project of Tulsa Count (CAP Tulsa), is a healthcare training program designed for parents of children enrolled in CAP’s Head Start programs.

A 30-year study of 3 generations at high risk and low risk for depression

Individual Author: 
Weissman, Myrna M.
Berry, Obianuju O.
Warner, Virginia
Gameroff, Marc J.
Skipper, Jamie
Talati, Ardesheer
Pilowsky, Daniel J.
Wickramaratne, Priya

Importance  The increased risk of major depression in the offspring of depressed parents is well known. Whether the risk is transmitted beyond 2 generations is less well known. To our knowledge, no published study with direct interviews of family members and the generations in the age of risk for depression has evaluated beyond 2 generations.

The health of parents and their children: A two-generation inquiry

Individual Author: 
Murphey, David
Cook, Elizabeth
Beckwith, Samuel
Belford, Jonathan

Health is a fundamental component of wellbeing. Children’s health affects their ability to succeed in school and engage in other learning opportunities within the contexts of their family, neighborhood, and community. This brief examines the relationship between the health of children and that of their parents, and between the availability of emotional support for parenting and children’s health, based on a large national sample. We use parent self-reports of health, which prior research has determined are valid measures of health status for both parents and their children.

HRSA’s home visiting program: Supporting families impacted by opioid use and neonatal abstinence syndrome

Individual Author: 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration

The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program supports voluntary, evidence-based home visiting services for at-risk pregnant women and parents with young children up to kindergarten entry.