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American Public Health Association

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Early childhood lead exposure and academic achievement: Evidence from Detroit public schools, 2008-2010

Individual Author: 
Zhang, Nanhua
Baker, Harolyn W.
Tufts, Margaret
Raymond, Randall E.
Salihu, Hamisu
Elliott, Micheal R.

Objectives We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children.

Exposure to lead and length of time needed to make homes lead-safe for young children

Individual Author: 
Zierold, Kristina M.
Havlena, Jeff
Anderson, Henry

Objectives: We determined the length of time needed to make homes lead-safe in a population of children aged 0 to 6 years with blood lead levels (BLLs) of 20 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dL) or greater. Reducing this time would reduce children's exposure to lead. 

Social determinants of health equity

Individual Author: 
Marmot, Michael
Allen, Jessica J.

Language is important. The call for papers in this supplement was entitled health equity. Yet the call asked for papers that address disparities in health. In the United States, disparities, most often, has been used to refer to racial/ethnic differences in health, or more commonly health care. We note that the call in this supplement expands the focus and highlights differences by socioeconomic status and geographic location, among others.

Evaluation of Raising Adolescent Families Together program: A medical home for adolescent mothers and their children

Individual Author: 
Cox, Joanne E.
Buman, Mathew P.
Woods, Elizabeth R.
Famakinwa, Olatokunbo
Harris, Sion Kim

Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes.

Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed.

Medicaid expansion and infant mortality in the United States

Individual Author: 
Bhatt, Chintan B.
Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.

Objectives. To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate.

Methods. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non–Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity.

Reducing disparities in adolescent pregnancy among US tribal youths

Individual Author: 
King Bowes, Kendra
Burrus, Barri B.
Axelson, Sarah
Garrido, Milagros
Kimbriel, Adriana
Abramson, Lisa
Gorman, Gwenda
Dancer, Angela
White, Terrill
Beaudry, PJ

Systemic inequities, including a lack of culturally appropriate sexual health education, put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents at higher-than-average risk for adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes. For example, in 2013, the birth rate among AI/AN adolescents aged 15 to 19 years was 31.1 per 1000 individuals, compared with 18.6 for White adolescents. AI/AN youths report earlier onset of sexual activity and greater numbers of sexual partners than do youths in general.

Longitudinal associations between poverty and obesity from birth through adolescence

Individual Author: 
Lee, Hedwig
Andrew, Megan
Gebremariam, Achamyeleh
Lumeng, Julie C.
Lee, Joyce M.

Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile).