As of August 2005, seventeen states have raised their minimum wages above the federal level of $5.15. Using Kingdon's agenda setting model, this article analyzes lessons from a case study of Illinois, the first Midwestern state to raise its minimum, up to $6.50 in January 2005. This legislative success was a result of a mix of factors including a change in the State's political environment with the election of a new governor, and collaboration between advocates and researchers who provided a rigorous analysis of the potential effects of raising the minimum wage.
Taylor & Francis
Many workers experience nonstandard work arrangements, such as being part time, an independent contractor, or working non-daytime hours. This article reviews existing literature and presents primary data on the United States' nonstandard workforce to make predictions about its possible growth during the current economic crisis. Analyses suggest substantial but temporary growth in the involuntary part-time workforce, as well as continued long-term growth of part-time primary earners.
This study examined whether the effects of employment-based policies on children’s math and reading achievement differed for African American, Latino and Caucasian children of welfare receiving parents, and if so, why. Two kinds of employment policies were examined: education-first programs with an emphasis on adult education and job training; and work-first programs with an emphasis on immediate employment.
The authors reviewed the evidence regarding the impact of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes on child nutrition outcomes, using a programme theory framework. They developed a programme impact model and synthesised evidence regarding the pathways through which CCTs may improve child nutrition. CCT programmes significantly improve child anthropometry but have very little impact on micronutrient status. The programmes also have a positive impact on several of the outcomes in the pathways to improved nutrition.
This study is the first to compare the homeownership outcomes of Individual Development Account (IDA) homebuyers with other low-income homebuyers. The IDA homebuyers purchased homes in 16 states with IDA funds between 1999 and 2007. We compare both loan terms and foreclosure outcomes for the IDA homebuyer sample to comparison groups of other low-income homebuyers who purchased homes in the same counties and during the same time period.
Since the 1960s an increasing number of Black children are reared by poor unmarried parents on welfare. To reduce poverty, minimize welfare dependence, and provide a monetary incentive for low-income, unmarried parents to wed, the government established the earned income tax credit (EITC). Since its establishment in 1975, however, scholars know very little about whether this credit can increase Black marriage among low-income couples with children.
This study uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) data to investigate whether the effect of local labor market conditions on the earnings of workers differs by gender, education level, or metropolitan/nonmetropolitan location. The results suggest that local economic conditions in the late 1990s did have a positive effect overall on wages for men with no more than a high school degree and for women regardless of education.
Drawing on data from a survey of family households in nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania, this paper examines how households construct livelihood strategies through partieipalion in the formal labor market, government assistance programs, and informal work (for cash, barter, and savings/self provisioning). Throughout, special attention is paid to influence of household income. The results show that participation in a varied livelihood strategy is common.
In this paper I explore how five competing theories of poverty shape anti-poverty strategies. Since most rural community development efforts aim to relieve causes or symptoms of poverty, it makes a difference which theory of poverty is believed to he responsible for the problem being addressed. In this paper five theories of poverty are distilled from the literature.
Overcrowding in U.S. emergency departments (ED) is a growing national problem that results in delayed or obstructed care and costs taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Studies show that access to a primary health care home reduces ED use, but more research is needed to determine how to best redirect vulnerable populations to primary care. Using data from forum group discussions with residents in a low-income, urban community, this study examined the decision processes residents used to decide whether to seek primary versus emergency care.