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SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Burke, Vee; Falk, Gene
    Year: 2001

    The 1996 welfare reform law (P.L. 104-193) established a block grant program for time-limited and work-conditioned aid for needy families with children called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). TANF requires that states penalize families if a recipient refuses to engage in required work. States determine actual penalties. According to TANF state plans, for a first violation, 19 states end family benefits until compliance, or for a minimum penalty period. Others reduce benefits for a first infraction. For repeat violations, penalties are increased in size or length. Counting both first and subsequent violations, 38 jurisdictions under some circumstances have provisions to penalize work infractions by ending family benefits for a time. Ultimately, seven of those 38 jurisdictions end family benefits for life. In FY1999, sanctions (including some not related to work) caused the closing of 156,000 TANF cases (6% of all closures). (author abstract)

    The 1996 welfare reform law (P.L. 104-193) established a block grant program for time-limited and work-conditioned aid for needy families with children called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). TANF requires that states penalize families if a recipient refuses to engage in required work. States determine actual penalties. According to TANF state plans, for a first violation, 19 states end family benefits until compliance, or for a minimum penalty period. Others reduce benefits for a first infraction. For repeat violations, penalties are increased in size or length. Counting both first and subsequent violations, 38 jurisdictions under some circumstances have provisions to penalize work infractions by ending family benefits for a time. Ultimately, seven of those 38 jurisdictions end family benefits for life. In FY1999, sanctions (including some not related to work) caused the closing of 156,000 TANF cases (6% of all closures). (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. General Accounting Office
    Year: 2000

    Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on state sanctions for families under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program who do not comply with the program's requirements, focusing on: (1) state sanction policies under TANF; (2) state procedures to reconcile noncompliance before imposing sanctions and state policies on families' right to appeal sanctions; (3) the number of benefit reductions and terminations that result from sanctions; and (4) state studies of families whose benefits are reduced or terminated as a result of sanctions. (author abstract)

    Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on state sanctions for families under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program who do not comply with the program's requirements, focusing on: (1) state sanction policies under TANF; (2) state procedures to reconcile noncompliance before imposing sanctions and state policies on families' right to appeal sanctions; (3) the number of benefit reductions and terminations that result from sanctions; and (4) state studies of families whose benefits are reduced or terminated as a result of sanctions. (author abstract)