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SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
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  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Stewart, Sylvia; Jee, Eunjung ; Santos, Jessica ; Braimah, Habiba ; Shapiro, Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2021

    This report examines employment trends for essential workers over 12 months, beginning at the start of the pandemic. In particular, we highlight racial and gender inequities in the healthcare workforce and the experiences of Black women. Key findings include:

    • While all essential workers suffered through the pandemic, Black women faced higher unemployment and lower wages than almost every other group.
    • In health care, the occupations with a larger proportion of Black women had the highest unemployment and the lowest wages.
    • While white healthcare workers were able to see rewards from their work through career advancement, Black women’s career standing more often stagnated or fell. (author abstract)

    This report examines employment trends for essential workers over 12 months, beginning at the start of the pandemic. In particular, we highlight racial and gender inequities in the healthcare workforce and the experiences of Black women. Key findings include:

    • While all essential workers suffered through the pandemic, Black women faced higher unemployment and lower wages than almost every other group.
    • In health care, the occupations with a larger proportion of Black women had the highest unemployment and the lowest wages.
    • While white healthcare workers were able to see rewards from their work through career advancement, Black women’s career standing more often stagnated or fell. (author abstract)
  • Individual Author: Kroeger, Teresa ; Wright, Graham
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2021

    Research has repeatedly argued that increasing the rate at which Black people start businesses could reduce the racial wealth gap between Black and white families, but increasing the rate of Black entrepreneurship may actually exacerbate the racial wealth gap, due to the economic cost associated with business closure. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we find that, as past work suggests, Black-owned businesses are less likely to remain open 4 years later, compared to white-owned businesses, and that, due to this disparity, Black business owners are more likely to experience downward economic mobility and less likely to experience upward mobility, compared to their white counterparts. These results suggest that improving the rate at which Black entrepreneurs succeed, rather than increasing the rate at which Black people become entrepreneurs, should be the target of efforts to leverage business ownership to reduce the racial wealth gap. (author abstract)

    Research has repeatedly argued that increasing the rate at which Black people start businesses could reduce the racial wealth gap between Black and white families, but increasing the rate of Black entrepreneurship may actually exacerbate the racial wealth gap, due to the economic cost associated with business closure. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we find that, as past work suggests, Black-owned businesses are less likely to remain open 4 years later, compared to white-owned businesses, and that, due to this disparity, Black business owners are more likely to experience downward economic mobility and less likely to experience upward mobility, compared to their white counterparts. These results suggest that improving the rate at which Black entrepreneurs succeed, rather than increasing the rate at which Black people become entrepreneurs, should be the target of efforts to leverage business ownership to reduce the racial wealth gap. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ewing-Nelson, Claire; Tucker, Jasmine
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2021

    The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) monthly jobs report shows that the economy gained 850,000 jobs in June 2021, marking an increase in job growth after 583,000 jobs were gained in May 2021. Women accounted for 47.6% of job gains last month, gaining 405,000 jobs while men gained 445,000. Nevertheless, women would need more than 9 straight months of job gains at last month’s level to recover the nearly 3.8 million net jobs they have lost since February 2020. (author abstract)

    The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) monthly jobs report shows that the economy gained 850,000 jobs in June 2021, marking an increase in job growth after 583,000 jobs were gained in May 2021. Women accounted for 47.6% of job gains last month, gaining 405,000 jobs while men gained 445,000. Nevertheless, women would need more than 9 straight months of job gains at last month’s level to recover the nearly 3.8 million net jobs they have lost since February 2020. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bateman, Nicole ; Ross, Martha
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2021

    The recession associated with the COVID-19 pandemic announced itself in spring 2020 with head-spinning job losses: 22 million lost jobs within two months, a shock that is hard to overstate.

    But aside from a brief winter setback due to surging COVID-19 cases, the U.S. economy has, fortunately, gained jobs each month since this initial hemorrhage. Earlier this month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) announced the economy added an expectations-beating 850,000 jobs in June, and wages also rose. This is unreservedly good news, but the economy is still down 7 million jobs, long-term unemployment is up, and many workers and families continue to struggle. (author abstract)

    The recession associated with the COVID-19 pandemic announced itself in spring 2020 with head-spinning job losses: 22 million lost jobs within two months, a shock that is hard to overstate.

    But aside from a brief winter setback due to surging COVID-19 cases, the U.S. economy has, fortunately, gained jobs each month since this initial hemorrhage. Earlier this month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) announced the economy added an expectations-beating 850,000 jobs in June, and wages also rose. This is unreservedly good news, but the economy is still down 7 million jobs, long-term unemployment is up, and many workers and families continue to struggle. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Shakesprere, Jessica ; Katz, Batia ; Loprest, Pamela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2021

    The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic recession have underscored that job quality varies across workers, resulting in uneven impacts on worker health, wealth, and stability. Black and Latine workers, who disproportionately hold low-paying and "essential" jobs, were more likely to feel these negative impacts. Racial disparities in job quality are not new but are long-standing fixtures of the US labor market. This brief summarizes what we know about racial disparities in job quality and some of the causes behind them. It concludes by outlining some gaps in our knowledge and additional information and research that can help us move forward to address racial inequities in job quality. (Author abstract)

    The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic recession have underscored that job quality varies across workers, resulting in uneven impacts on worker health, wealth, and stability. Black and Latine workers, who disproportionately hold low-paying and "essential" jobs, were more likely to feel these negative impacts. Racial disparities in job quality are not new but are long-standing fixtures of the US labor market. This brief summarizes what we know about racial disparities in job quality and some of the causes behind them. It concludes by outlining some gaps in our knowledge and additional information and research that can help us move forward to address racial inequities in job quality. (Author abstract)

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