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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Stewart, Sylvia; Jee, Eunjung ; Santos, Jessica ; Braimah, Habiba ; Shapiro, Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2021

    This report examines employment trends for essential workers over 12 months, beginning at the start of the pandemic. In particular, we highlight racial and gender inequities in the healthcare workforce and the experiences of Black women. Key findings include:

    • While all essential workers suffered through the pandemic, Black women faced higher unemployment and lower wages than almost every other group.
    • In health care, the occupations with a larger proportion of Black women had the highest unemployment and the lowest wages.
    • While white healthcare workers were able to see rewards from their work through career advancement, Black women’s career standing more often stagnated or fell. (author abstract)

    This report examines employment trends for essential workers over 12 months, beginning at the start of the pandemic. In particular, we highlight racial and gender inequities in the healthcare workforce and the experiences of Black women. Key findings include:

    • While all essential workers suffered through the pandemic, Black women faced higher unemployment and lower wages than almost every other group.
    • In health care, the occupations with a larger proportion of Black women had the highest unemployment and the lowest wages.
    • While white healthcare workers were able to see rewards from their work through career advancement, Black women’s career standing more often stagnated or fell. (author abstract)
  • Individual Author: Kroeger, Teresa ; Wright, Graham
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2021

    Research has repeatedly argued that increasing the rate at which Black people start businesses could reduce the racial wealth gap between Black and white families, but increasing the rate of Black entrepreneurship may actually exacerbate the racial wealth gap, due to the economic cost associated with business closure. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we find that, as past work suggests, Black-owned businesses are less likely to remain open 4 years later, compared to white-owned businesses, and that, due to this disparity, Black business owners are more likely to experience downward economic mobility and less likely to experience upward mobility, compared to their white counterparts. These results suggest that improving the rate at which Black entrepreneurs succeed, rather than increasing the rate at which Black people become entrepreneurs, should be the target of efforts to leverage business ownership to reduce the racial wealth gap. (author abstract)

    Research has repeatedly argued that increasing the rate at which Black people start businesses could reduce the racial wealth gap between Black and white families, but increasing the rate of Black entrepreneurship may actually exacerbate the racial wealth gap, due to the economic cost associated with business closure. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we find that, as past work suggests, Black-owned businesses are less likely to remain open 4 years later, compared to white-owned businesses, and that, due to this disparity, Black business owners are more likely to experience downward economic mobility and less likely to experience upward mobility, compared to their white counterparts. These results suggest that improving the rate at which Black entrepreneurs succeed, rather than increasing the rate at which Black people become entrepreneurs, should be the target of efforts to leverage business ownership to reduce the racial wealth gap. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ewing-Nelson, Claire; Tucker, Jasmine
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2021

    The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) monthly jobs report shows that the economy gained 850,000 jobs in June 2021, marking an increase in job growth after 583,000 jobs were gained in May 2021. Women accounted for 47.6% of job gains last month, gaining 405,000 jobs while men gained 445,000. Nevertheless, women would need more than 9 straight months of job gains at last month’s level to recover the nearly 3.8 million net jobs they have lost since February 2020. (author abstract)

    The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) monthly jobs report shows that the economy gained 850,000 jobs in June 2021, marking an increase in job growth after 583,000 jobs were gained in May 2021. Women accounted for 47.6% of job gains last month, gaining 405,000 jobs while men gained 445,000. Nevertheless, women would need more than 9 straight months of job gains at last month’s level to recover the nearly 3.8 million net jobs they have lost since February 2020. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bateman, Nicole ; Ross, Martha
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2021

    The recession associated with the COVID-19 pandemic announced itself in spring 2020 with head-spinning job losses: 22 million lost jobs within two months, a shock that is hard to overstate.

    But aside from a brief winter setback due to surging COVID-19 cases, the U.S. economy has, fortunately, gained jobs each month since this initial hemorrhage. Earlier this month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) announced the economy added an expectations-beating 850,000 jobs in June, and wages also rose. This is unreservedly good news, but the economy is still down 7 million jobs, long-term unemployment is up, and many workers and families continue to struggle. (author abstract)

    The recession associated with the COVID-19 pandemic announced itself in spring 2020 with head-spinning job losses: 22 million lost jobs within two months, a shock that is hard to overstate.

    But aside from a brief winter setback due to surging COVID-19 cases, the U.S. economy has, fortunately, gained jobs each month since this initial hemorrhage. Earlier this month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) announced the economy added an expectations-beating 850,000 jobs in June, and wages also rose. This is unreservedly good news, but the economy is still down 7 million jobs, long-term unemployment is up, and many workers and families continue to struggle. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Karpman, Michael; Zuckerman, Stephen; Gonzalez, Dulce; Kenney, Genevieve M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2020

    As it confronts the COVID-19 pandemic, the US faces what could be its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. A successful government response to the economic consequences of the pandemic is critical for sustaining families’ health and well-being and allowing families to remain housed as major sectors of the economy remain closed. The success of this response will partly depend on its effectiveness in reaching the families hardest hit by the loss of jobs and incomes. As relief is distributed, policymakers will need timely data on families’ financial and material well-being to evaluate and improve current efforts and inform new legislation. This brief uses new data from the Urban Institute’s Health Reform Monitoring Survey, a nationally representative survey of nonelderly adults conducted between March 25 and April 10, 2020, to examine the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on families’ employment and abilities to meet basic needs, as well as racial/ethnic and family income–related disparities in the economic impact of the pandemic. As of late March/early April, we find...

    As it confronts the COVID-19 pandemic, the US faces what could be its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. A successful government response to the economic consequences of the pandemic is critical for sustaining families’ health and well-being and allowing families to remain housed as major sectors of the economy remain closed. The success of this response will partly depend on its effectiveness in reaching the families hardest hit by the loss of jobs and incomes. As relief is distributed, policymakers will need timely data on families’ financial and material well-being to evaluate and improve current efforts and inform new legislation. This brief uses new data from the Urban Institute’s Health Reform Monitoring Survey, a nationally representative survey of nonelderly adults conducted between March 25 and April 10, 2020, to examine the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on families’ employment and abilities to meet basic needs, as well as racial/ethnic and family income–related disparities in the economic impact of the pandemic. As of late March/early April, we find the following: 

    • Just over 4 in 10 nonelderly adults (41.5 percent) reported that their families have lost jobs, work hours, or work-related income because of the coronavirus outbreak.
    • Job and income losses are widespread but more prevalent among the families of low-income and Hispanic adults.
    • In response to the crisis, 30.6 percent of adults reported that their families reduced spending on food, 43.1 percent put off major purchases, and 27.9 percent drew down savings or increased credit card debt. Among adults in families that lost work or income, 46.5 percent reduced spending on food, 58.1 percent put off major purchases, and 43.9 percent tapped savings or increased credit card debt.
    • Low-income, Hispanic, and black adults were most likely to report that their families reduced spending on food, delayed major purchases, or used savings or increased credit card debt.
    • As families cope with new financial challenges, many have experienced serious material hardships. Nearly one-third of adults (31.0 percent) reported that their families could not pay the rent, mortgage, or utility bills, were food insecure, or went without medical care because of the cost during the last 30 days. Among adults in families that lost work or income, the share experiencing these material hardships was 42.0 percent over the same time period.
    • Over two-thirds (68.6 percent) of adults with family incomes below the federal poverty level and over 45 percent of black and Hispanic adults reported that their families experienced one or more of these hardships in the last 30 days.
    • Looking ahead to the next month, adults are most likely to be worried about being able to work enough hours (38.5 percent) and pay their debts (33.1 percent), and more than one-quarter worry about paying for housing, utility, and medical costs and having enough food to eat. (Author abstract)

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