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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Friedlander, Daniel; Burtless, Gary
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1995

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment...

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment programs for welfare recipients, delineates the hard choices that must be made among competing approaches, and provides a well-documented foundation for building more comprehensive programs for the next generation. A sobering tale for welfare reformers of all political persuasions, this book poses a serious challenge to anyone who promises to end welfare dependency by cutting welfare budgets. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Weinberg, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1995

    Formal measurement of poverty in the United States is less than three decades old. Not since the adoption of official poverty thresholds by the federal government in the late 1960's has there been such a great interest as now in examining and possibly respecifying the thresholds. This paper first briefly describes the origins and basis of the official thresholds. Then, it discusses in some detail some of the more current issues that must be addressed to bring the thresholds up-to-date. The final section discusses a recent effort to propose a comprehensive alternate approach. (author abstract)

    Formal measurement of poverty in the United States is less than three decades old. Not since the adoption of official poverty thresholds by the federal government in the late 1960's has there been such a great interest as now in examining and possibly respecifying the thresholds. This paper first briefly describes the origins and basis of the official thresholds. Then, it discusses in some detail some of the more current issues that must be addressed to bring the thresholds up-to-date. The final section discusses a recent effort to propose a comprehensive alternate approach. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nord, Mark; Cook, Peggy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1995

    Proposed changes in poverty measurement methods would lower the nonmetro poverty rate by 3 percentage points and raise the metro poverty rate by 1 percentage point. The resulting nonmetro poverty rate would be lower than the metro rate, reversing the historic rural poverty gap. Measured poverty would decline by 4 percentage points in the nonmetro South and by more than 10 percentage points for nonmetro blacks. The adjustment for cost of housing accounts for most of the metro-nonmetro difference between the current and proposed measures. (author abstract)

    Proposed changes in poverty measurement methods would lower the nonmetro poverty rate by 3 percentage points and raise the metro poverty rate by 1 percentage point. The resulting nonmetro poverty rate would be lower than the metro rate, reversing the historic rural poverty gap. Measured poverty would decline by 4 percentage points in the nonmetro South and by more than 10 percentage points for nonmetro blacks. The adjustment for cost of housing accounts for most of the metro-nonmetro difference between the current and proposed measures. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ozawa, Martha N.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1995

    Initially a program to relieve the burdens of the social security tax on low-income taxpayers, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is rapidly becoming a major income support program for the working poor and their families.  This article discusses the effects of the EITC on the income status and work incentives of welfare families in New York City and Texas, assesses the distributive effect of the EITC, and investigates the extent to which the EITC helps welfare families escape poverty through work.  It then places the EITC in a broader policy perspective, describing its ripple effects on this country's treatment of the working poor versus the nonworking poor, support of children, and attempts to cope with the increasing disparity in the incomes of high-wage and low-wage workers. (author abstract)

    Initially a program to relieve the burdens of the social security tax on low-income taxpayers, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is rapidly becoming a major income support program for the working poor and their families.  This article discusses the effects of the EITC on the income status and work incentives of welfare families in New York City and Texas, assesses the distributive effect of the EITC, and investigates the extent to which the EITC helps welfare families escape poverty through work.  It then places the EITC in a broader policy perspective, describing its ripple effects on this country's treatment of the working poor versus the nonworking poor, support of children, and attempts to cope with the increasing disparity in the incomes of high-wage and low-wage workers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gordon, Linda
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1994

    When Americans denounce "welfare", most are thinking of the program of aid for single mothers and their children--the only program of the Social Security Act to become stigmatized. Gordon uncovers the tangled roots of competing visions of welfare and shows that welfare reform can only work if it recognizes that single motherhood is an enduring aspect of contemporary life. (publisher abstract)

    When Americans denounce "welfare", most are thinking of the program of aid for single mothers and their children--the only program of the Social Security Act to become stigmatized. Gordon uncovers the tangled roots of competing visions of welfare and shows that welfare reform can only work if it recognizes that single motherhood is an enduring aspect of contemporary life. (publisher abstract)

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