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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Larson, Anita ; Singh, Shweta; Lewis, Crystal
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Most research on the impact of welfare reform has been upon the employment status of parents and trends in declining caseloads. Recent research has examined how children in Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program families are faring, with growing interest in the effects upon children of the disruptions to cash benefits that result from program sanctions, the policies that are intended to motivate parents to comply with work requirements. Adding to the body of knowledge on children and TANF sanctions, this study used administrative data to examine school attendance rates and disruptions to enrollment, for children from families with at least one sanction. Findings indicate that there are important probable connections between the factors that contribute to challenges to employment that relate to parenting and the school engagement of children in TANF families. (author abstract)

    Most research on the impact of welfare reform has been upon the employment status of parents and trends in declining caseloads. Recent research has examined how children in Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program families are faring, with growing interest in the effects upon children of the disruptions to cash benefits that result from program sanctions, the policies that are intended to motivate parents to comply with work requirements. Adding to the body of knowledge on children and TANF sanctions, this study used administrative data to examine school attendance rates and disruptions to enrollment, for children from families with at least one sanction. Findings indicate that there are important probable connections between the factors that contribute to challenges to employment that relate to parenting and the school engagement of children in TANF families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Monnat, Shannon M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Born, Catherine; Kolupanowich, Nicholas; Ovwigho, Pamela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work...

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work Supports

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Casey, Timothy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    A new report by Legal Momentum, demonstrates the serious harm financial sanctions cause Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients. Legal Momentum's report shows that these sanctions are very common and that many are imposed erroneously or for extremely minor violations, such as missing an appointment or failing to file a document. These penalties cause real hardship: sanctioned TANF families often report maternal or child hunger, eviction or homelessness, and lack of medical care.

    Though sanctions have contributed to a sharp decline in TANF participation by eligible families, federal TANF policy continues to incentivize states to impose them.   

    Congress must reform the TANF sanction system when it considers the program for reauthorization. (author abstract)

    A new report by Legal Momentum, demonstrates the serious harm financial sanctions cause Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients. Legal Momentum's report shows that these sanctions are very common and that many are imposed erroneously or for extremely minor violations, such as missing an appointment or failing to file a document. These penalties cause real hardship: sanctioned TANF families often report maternal or child hunger, eviction or homelessness, and lack of medical care.

    Though sanctions have contributed to a sharp decline in TANF participation by eligible families, federal TANF policy continues to incentivize states to impose them.   

    Congress must reform the TANF sanction system when it considers the program for reauthorization. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cheng, Tyrone C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was...

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was most likely a participant's reason for being sanctioned. Policy implications are discussed. (Author abstract)

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