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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Greenberg, Mark H.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), states have broad discretion in using their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) dollars and state maintenance of effort dollars. A state wishing to do so can use this discretion to expand the availability of child care assistance to low-income families. States have multiple options: a state can directly spend TANF dollars on child care; can transfer TANF funds to the Child Care and Development Fund; can transfer TANF funds to the Title XX Social Services Block Grant; can (to at least some extent) spend Welfare-to-Work grant dollars on child care; and can spend state “maintenance of effort” funds for child care. The array of options can sometimes be confusing because different consequences attach to each choice. This document summarizes the choices and their consequences. (author introduction)

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), states have broad discretion in using their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) dollars and state maintenance of effort dollars. A state wishing to do so can use this discretion to expand the availability of child care assistance to low-income families. States have multiple options: a state can directly spend TANF dollars on child care; can transfer TANF funds to the Child Care and Development Fund; can transfer TANF funds to the Title XX Social Services Block Grant; can (to at least some extent) spend Welfare-to-Work grant dollars on child care; and can spend state “maintenance of effort” funds for child care. The array of options can sometimes be confusing because different consequences attach to each choice. This document summarizes the choices and their consequences. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Priestley, Mark
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Existing research approaches to childhood disability have compounded a view of disabled children as passive and dependent. Moreover, the voices of disabled children themselves have frequently been excluded. Research agendas have been preoccupied with impairment, vulnerability and service usage. As a consequence, they have often concealed the role of disabled children as social actors, negotiating complex identities within a disabling environment. In order to understand the experience of disabled children it is necessary to engage simultaneously with new approaches to disability and with new approaches to childhood. (Author abstract)

    Existing research approaches to childhood disability have compounded a view of disabled children as passive and dependent. Moreover, the voices of disabled children themselves have frequently been excluded. Research agendas have been preoccupied with impairment, vulnerability and service usage. As a consequence, they have often concealed the role of disabled children as social actors, negotiating complex identities within a disabling environment. In order to understand the experience of disabled children it is necessary to engage simultaneously with new approaches to disability and with new approaches to childhood. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Courtney, Mark E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    The financing structure of any large public service system both reveals the priorities held by policymakers and drives the delivery of services. Of the $11.2 billion in public funds for child welfare services, somewhat less than half is federal. As this article explains, federal funds for child welfare overwhelmingly go to support out-of-home care (foster care and adoption services), and these costs have risen sharply in recent years. In contrast, federal funding for child protection investigations, prevention programs, and treatment services is more limited, and expenditures have not risen apace with reports of maltreatment.

    The article compares the high cost of foster care with the lower per capita cost of cash assistance to poor families and the per-case costs of child protection investigations and service provision. Pointing out that the great majority of families served by the child welfare system are poor, the author argues that child welfare and cash assistance should be seen and analyzed as interrelated programs serving poor families. The article examines the...

    The financing structure of any large public service system both reveals the priorities held by policymakers and drives the delivery of services. Of the $11.2 billion in public funds for child welfare services, somewhat less than half is federal. As this article explains, federal funds for child welfare overwhelmingly go to support out-of-home care (foster care and adoption services), and these costs have risen sharply in recent years. In contrast, federal funding for child protection investigations, prevention programs, and treatment services is more limited, and expenditures have not risen apace with reports of maltreatment.

    The article compares the high cost of foster care with the lower per capita cost of cash assistance to poor families and the per-case costs of child protection investigations and service provision. Pointing out that the great majority of families served by the child welfare system are poor, the author argues that child welfare and cash assistance should be seen and analyzed as interrelated programs serving poor families. The article examines the varied ways in which the changes in cash assistance programs introduced by the 1996 federal welfare reform law may increase the need for child welfare services and drive up the costs of child protection. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fox, Harriette B.; McManus, Margaret A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    The rapid transition of state Medicaid beneficiaries into fully capitated managed care plans requires a special focus on children with chronic or disabling conditions, who often depend on numerous pediatric physicians and other specialty services for health care and related services. Because managed care arrangements for this population are growing in popularity nationwide, it is important that states craft managed care contracts to address the unique needs of children with complex physical, developmental, and mental health problems. Based on the research reported in this article, in-depth interviews with state Medicaid agency staff, interviews with medical directors and administrators of managed care plans serving Medicaid recipients, and input from experts in pediatrics and managed care, a set of recommendations is made for tailoring managed care contracts to meet the needs of this vulnerable group of children.

    Six contracting elements that should be adopted by state Medicaid agencies include (1) clarifying the specificity of...

    The rapid transition of state Medicaid beneficiaries into fully capitated managed care plans requires a special focus on children with chronic or disabling conditions, who often depend on numerous pediatric physicians and other specialty services for health care and related services. Because managed care arrangements for this population are growing in popularity nationwide, it is important that states craft managed care contracts to address the unique needs of children with complex physical, developmental, and mental health problems. Based on the research reported in this article, in-depth interviews with state Medicaid agency staff, interviews with medical directors and administrators of managed care plans serving Medicaid recipients, and input from experts in pediatrics and managed care, a set of recommendations is made for tailoring managed care contracts to meet the needs of this vulnerable group of children.

    Six contracting elements that should be adopted by state Medicaid agencies include (1) clarifying the specificity of pediatric benefits, (2) defining appropriate pediatric provider capacity requirements, (3) developing a medical necessity standard specific to children, (4) identifying pediatric quality-of-care measures, (5) setting appropriate pediatric capitation rates, and (6) creating incentives for high-quality pediatric care.

    Nine approaches that should be adopted by managed care practices interested in providing high-quality care for children with special needs also are identified. These include (1) ensuring that assigned primary care providers have appropriate training and experience, (2) offering support systems for primary care practices, (3) providing specialty consultation for primary care providers, (4) establishing arrangements for the comanagement of primary and specialty pediatric services, (5) arranging for comprehensive care coordination, (6) establishing flexible service authorization policies, (7) implementing provider profiling systems that adjust for pediatric case mix, (8) creating financial incentives for serving children with special needs, and (9) encouraging family involvement in plan operations.

    Implementing these changes to managed care contracting could have a major impact on the quality and comprehensiveness of health care received by children with special needs. Successful implementation, however, requires strong support from both state Medicaid agencies and the managed care plans dedicated to serving this population. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lewit, Eugene M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Between 7 million and 10 million children in the United States lack health insurance. Many of these uninsured children experience difficulty obtaining needed health care. To expand health insurance coverage for children, in August 1997, Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. CHIP, also known as Title XXI of the Social Security Act, offers states new federal funding in the form of block grants to provide "child health assistance to uninsured children in low-income families in an effective and efficient manner that is coordinated with other sources of health benefits coverage for children." The program is authorized for 10 years and is expected to provide insurance coverage for millions of currently uninsured children. Federal expenditures on child health assistance under the law are estimated to total $40 billion to $50 billion over the life of the legislation.

    The enactment of CHIP represents the most significant funding increase for children's health insurance coverage since the enactment of...

    Between 7 million and 10 million children in the United States lack health insurance. Many of these uninsured children experience difficulty obtaining needed health care. To expand health insurance coverage for children, in August 1997, Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. CHIP, also known as Title XXI of the Social Security Act, offers states new federal funding in the form of block grants to provide "child health assistance to uninsured children in low-income families in an effective and efficient manner that is coordinated with other sources of health benefits coverage for children." The program is authorized for 10 years and is expected to provide insurance coverage for millions of currently uninsured children. Federal expenditures on child health assistance under the law are estimated to total $40 billion to $50 billion over the life of the legislation.

    The enactment of CHIP represents the most significant funding increase for children's health insurance coverage since the enactment of Medicaid in 1965. Medicaid, a means-tested entitlement program financed by the state and federal governments and administered by the states, covered approximately 17.5 million children in 1995. Medicaid covers approximately two-thirds of all poor children and one-quarter of the children in families with incomes between 100% and 200% of the federal poverty level. Despite expansion of the Medicaid program in recent years, many children in low-income families remain uninsured. CHIP is intended to address this problem.

    Although participating states must provide some funding, and states must meet a number of requirements to be eligible for federal CHIP funding, CHIP legislation gives states considerable flexibility in implementing the program. This short article reviews the basic decisions that states must make when implementing their CHIP programs and reports on the decisions that states participating in the program have made, as reflected in the plans they had submitted to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) as of April 1, 1998. (author abstract)

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